Inventory and analysis of national public policies that stimulate biotechnology research, its exploitation and commercialisation by industry in Europe in the period 2002–2005
BioPolis Final Report March 2007
Modern biotechnology is one of today’s key enabling technologies. It has become the driving force of dramatic changes in innovation processes in many sectors. However, the development and implementation of biotechnology is rather diverse across countries. Although part of the explanation might come from historical, geographical, economic or demographic factors, government policy measures are an important key for understanding why biotechnology shows such large differences in growth patterns between countries. Policy makers have developed a variety of different policies and policy instruments to foster biotechnology innovation processes. The first aim of BioPolis is to provide an upto- date and detailed overview of these national and regional biotechnology policies and policy instruments for the period 2002-2005 in all EU Member States, four Accession Countries, and Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. The second aim is to assess the effectiveness of biotechnology policies by exploring the relationship between national policy approaches towards biotechnology and the performance of the respective national biotechnology innovation systems.